This is not a comprehensive HOW TO GROW garlic section. There are good books on the subject.
See below for a few comments about what we do on the farm. Every year we adjust the process.
We work our soil thoroughly before planting.
It is deep ripped first, lime added one tonne per hectare -, sown to a green manure, ploughed in, scarified, biodynamic preps sprayed over, then harrowed before we plant.
Over a two year period - the land will receive two green manure crops; broadbeans/mustard/peas.
We used to plant the garlic – clove by clove, but we now simply sprinkle them along the rows. It doesn’t matter if they land upside down, they eventually move the right way up.
Push the clove, pointy end up, into well prepared soil so it’s just beneath the surface.
Spacing along a row should be about 140mm. Water well. It will shoot within days.
The photo on the left shows garlic popping out of the ground just 7 days after it was planted.
After the garlic is above 2 inches high, we spread thick mulch over all of it to keep the weeds away.
Water needs to be kept up and we ensure the crop never really completely dries out until one month before harvest.
We stop watering around mid September. By then the bulbs are forming (if later down south, you can water later- but stop watering when they start to bulb.)
When the bulbs are fully formed and at least 2 to 4 leaves have browned off it is ready to harvest. (late Oct or November.)